Lamentations is a book containing five poetic laments mourning the destruction and captivity of Jerusalem and God’s goodness. Where once the city was like a great queen, it became desolate like a widow enslaved and weeping in the night. All of Israel’s history with God, the law, and the prophets, have not been enough to keep the people faithful. A chapter of that history ends with a nation of freed slaves defeated and enslaved by Babylon.
That is not how Lamentations ends, though. Babylon is an agent of God used to punish Israel, and the book acknowledges God’s eternal sovereignty, mercy, and faithfulness. God is punishing Israel, but He has not abandoned it. The book ends with an Judah’s repentance and appeal for restoration.